Do you know? There are many fatal diseases which are as fatal as the diseases which we normally hear in our society. This write-up will help you know about the world’s most dangerous diseases. And we bet, some of them you will be reading for the first time.
10. Dengue fever
Dengue is transmitted by the bite of a mosquito infected with one of the four dengue virus serotypes and is constant threat. It is a febrile illness that affects infants, young children and adults with symptoms appearing 3-14 days after the infective bite. Dengue is not transmitted directly from person-to-person and symptoms range from mild fever, to incapacitating high fever, with severe headache, pain behind the eyes, muscle and joint pain, and rash. People who have dengue fever should rest, drink plenty of fluids and reduce the fever using paracetamol or see a doctor. Severe dengue (also known as dengue hemorrhagic fever) is characterized by fever, abdominal pain, persistent vomiting, bleeding and breathing difficulty and is a potentially lethal complication, affecting mainly children. Early clinical diagnosis and careful clinical management by trained physicians and nurses increase survival of patients.
9. Kyasanur Forest Virus (KFD) virus
Kyasanur Forest disease (KFD) is caused by Kyasanur Forest disease virus (KFDV), a member of the virus family Flaviviridae. KFDV was identified in 1957 when it was isolated from a sick monkey from the Kyasanur Forest in Karnataka (formerly Mysore) State, India. Since then, between 400-500 humans cases per year have been reported. People infected with the virus suffer from high fever, strong headaches and muscle pain which can cause bleedings.
8. Machupo virus
The Machupo virus was first isolated in 1959 and is a New World Arenavirus from the Arenaviridae family. The virus is associated with Bolivian hemorrhagic fever, also known as black typhus or Ordog Fever. The infection causes high fever, accompanied by heavy bleedings. The virus can be transmitted from human to human, and rodents often the carry it.
The Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF) virus causes severe viral haemorrhagic fever outbreaks. CCHF outbreaks have a case fatality rate of up to 40%. The virus is primarily transmitted to people from ticks and livestock animals. Human-to-human transmission can occur resulting from close contact with the blood, secretions, organs or other bodily fluids of infected persons. CCHF is endemic in Africa, the Balkans, the Middle East and Asia, in countries south of the 50th parallel north. There is no vaccine available for either people or animals.
6. Junin virus
The Junin virus or Junín virus is an arenavirus that causes Argentine hemorrhagic fever (AHF). The virus takes its name from the city of Junín, around which the first cases of infection were reported, in 1958. Human exposure to Junin virus is believed to occur mainly through inhalation of aerosolised body fluids (blood, saliva) or excretions (urine, faeces) of infected rodents, typically during agricultural work (1,3,4,11,13). Transmission can also occur via contact of skin lesions to infected rodent secretions and/or excretions.
5. Lassa virus
Lassa virus is carried by the Mastomys rat, which is found in parts of West Africa. The virus is transmitted to humans from direct contact with infected rats by catching and preparing them for food, or through contact with food or household items contaminated with rat faeces or urine. The virus can also be transmitted through contact with an infected person’s body fluids. Around 80% of people who become infected with Lassa virus have no symptoms or they have symptoms that mimic other illnesses, such as malaria, making it difficult to treat them.
4. Bird flu
Avian influenza (AI), also called Bird flu. The viruses circulating in animals pose threats to human health. Humans can become ill when infected with viruses from animal sources, such as avian influenza virus subtypes H5N1 and H9N2 and swine influenza virus subtypes H1N1 and H3N2. The primary risk factor for human infection appears to be direct or indirect exposure to infected live or dead animals or contaminated environments. The risk of contracting the H5N1 strain – one of the best known – is quite low.
Hantavirus diseases are viral infections; important examples are haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) and hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS). It is named after a river where American soldiers were first thought to have been infected with the Hantavirus, during the Korean War in 1950. It is transmitted by various species of rodents; specific viruses have particular rodent hosts. Infection occurs through direct contact with the faeces, saliva or urine of infected rodents or by inhalation of the virus in rodent excreta. Lung disease, fever and kidney failure are some symptoms of Hantavirus.
2. Ebola virus
The Ebola virus causes an acute, serious illness which is often fatal if untreated. It is named after countries and regions in Africa: Zaire, Sudan, Tai Forest, Bundibugyo and Reston. Ebola virus disease (EVD) first appeared in 1976 in 2 simultaneous outbreaks, one in what is now, Nzara, South Sudan, and the other in Yambuku, Democratic Republic of Congo. The virus family Filoviridae includes three genera: Cuevavirus, Marburgvirus, and Ebolavirus. There are five species that have been identified: Zaire, Bundibugyo, Sudan, Reston and Taï Forest. People remain infectious as long as their blood contains the virus.
1. Marburg virus
Marburg virus disease (MVD) (formerly known as Marburg haemorrhagic fever) was first identified in 1967 during epidemics in Marburg and Frankfurt in Germany and Belgrade in the former Yugoslavia from importation of infected monkeys from Uganda. It is the most dangerous virus. As with Ebola, the Marburg virus causes convulsions and bleeding of mucous membranes, skin and organs. It has a fatality rate of 90 percent. The Marburg virus is transmitted by direct contact with the blood, body fluids and tissues of infected persons. Transmission of the Marburg virus also occurred by handling ill or dead infected wild animals (monkeys, fruit bats). The predominant treatment is general supportive therapy.